There’s going to be some polysynthesis at some point in the future, so this is not a complete overview of Kalis verbs.  But it’s as close as we’re going to get without 4 25-entry tables of irritating “little words”, so this will do for now.  The root will be bolded for convenience, and keep in mind that capital letters have phonemic significance.

Your basic verb, made from one of the paradigms, is in the progressive aspect, present tense, active voice, and indicative mood.  Hence, péergol, he is seeing her.  (The pe- is not part of the verb; I dunno what you actually call these things, so I’m going to call it an argument prefix.  It tells us that the subject/agent is singular and masculine, while the object/patient is singular and feminine.  Yay little words…?)  To make it perfective, you put a low tone on the last vowel of the root: péergòl, he sees her. 

To put a verb in the past tense, you lower the final vowel (i>e, e>a, u>o, o>a).  If you can’t lower it, you back it instead (a>o).  péergal, he was seeing her; Láargòl, she was visible. (La-, singular feminine subject, no object; argul, “to be visible”)  For the future, you raise or front the vowel (a>e, e>i, i>i, o>u, u>i).  péergèl, he will see her

For passive voice, infix -aT- between the argument prefix and the root: LáaTergal, she was being seen.  Kalis does not have the middle, anti-passive or inverse voices, but an equivalent effect can often be accomplished with the appropriate argument prefixes as in Laergòl, she sees.  This sentence contains no information about what she sees, much like an anti-passive.  You could even have véergol, “there is seeing” or “seeing is happening”; this says nothing at all about either the viewer or the viewed.

Finally, Kalis has four moods: indicative, subjunctive, potentive, and hortative.  The subjunctive is used for hypotheticals, wishes and hopes, and situations contrary to reality.  The potentive indicates what can or may be done; the hortative what should be done.  They are all expressed with suffixes, subj. -aya, capt. -ewi, hort. -ula; hence, péergòlaya, if he sees her/if he were seeing her/he might see her/he should[is likely to be able to] see her; péergòlewi, He can see her/he may see her; péergòlula, he should[is obliged to] see her

Later, more on argument prefixes and what they’re for.


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